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06 - COMOS FEED Integrated Engineering - Öl und Gas (Deutsch)We are using the following form field to detect spammers. Please do leave them untouched. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam.

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Mineralwasser mit Kohlensäure. Sprudelwasser nt. Gaswolken mit einem Wasservorhang binden. Macroscopically, the gas characteristics measured are either in terms of the gas particles themselves velocity, pressure, or temperature or their surroundings volume.

For example, Robert Boyle studied pneumatic chemistry for a small portion of his career. One of his experiments related the macroscopic properties of pressure and volume of a gas.

His experiment used a J-tube manometer which looks like a test tube in the shape of the letter J. Boyle trapped an inert gas in the closed end of the test tube with a column of mercury , thereby making the number of particles and the temperature constant.

He observed that when the pressure was increased in the gas, by adding more mercury to the column, the trapped gas' volume decreased this is known as an inverse relationship.

Furthermore, when Boyle multiplied the pressure and volume of each observation, the product was constant. There are many mathematical tools available for analyzing gas properties.

As gases are subjected to extreme conditions, these tools become more complex, from the Euler equations for inviscid flow to the Navier—Stokes equations [12] that fully account for viscous effects.

These equations are adapted to the conditions of the gas system in question. Boyle's lab equipment allowed the use of algebra to obtain his analytical results.

His results were possible because he was studying gases in relatively low pressure situations where they behaved in an "ideal" manner.

These ideal relationships apply to safety calculations for a variety of flight conditions on the materials in use.

The high technology equipment in use today was designed to help us safely explore the more exotic operating environments where the gases no longer behave in an "ideal" manner.

This advanced math, including statistics and multivariable calculus , makes possible the solution to such complex dynamic situations as space vehicle reentry.

An example is the analysis of the space shuttle reentry pictured to ensure the material properties under this loading condition are appropriate.

In this flight regime, the gas is no longer behaving ideally. The symbol used to represent pressure in equations is "p" or "P" with SI units of pascals.

When describing a container of gas, the term pressure or absolute pressure refers to the average force per unit area that the gas exerts on the surface of the container.

Within this volume, it is sometimes easier to visualize the gas particles moving in straight lines until they collide with the container see diagram at top of the article.

The force imparted by a gas particle into the container during this collision is the change in momentum of the particle. A particle traveling parallel to the wall does not change its momentum.

Therefore, the average force on a surface must be the average change in linear momentum from all of these gas particle collisions.

Pressure is the sum of all the normal components of force exerted by the particles impacting the walls of the container divided by the surface area of the wall.

The symbol used to represent temperature in equations is T with SI units of kelvins. The speed of a gas particle is proportional to its absolute temperature.

The volume of the balloon in the video shrinks when the trapped gas particles slow down with the addition of extremely cold nitrogen.

The temperature of any physical system is related to the motions of the particles molecules and atoms which make up the [gas] system. The methods of storing this energy are dictated by the degrees of freedom of the particle itself energy modes.

Kinetic energy added endothermic process to gas particles by way of collisions produces linear, rotational, and vibrational motion. In contrast, a molecule in a solid can only increase its vibrational modes with the addition of heat as the lattice crystal structure prevents both linear and rotational motions.

These heated gas molecules have a greater speed range which constantly varies due to constant collisions with other particles.

The speed range can be described by the Maxwell—Boltzmann distribution. Use of this distribution implies ideal gases near thermodynamic equilibrium for the system of particles being considered.

The symbol used to represent specific volume in equations is "v" with SI units of cubic meters per kilogram.

When performing a thermodynamic analysis, it is typical to speak of intensive and extensive properties. Properties which depend on the amount of gas either by mass or volume are called extensive properties, while properties that do not depend on the amount of gas are called intensive properties.

Specific volume is an example of an intensive property because it is the ratio of volume occupied by a unit of mass of a gas that is identical throughout a system at equilibrium.

This concept is easier to visualize for solids such as iron which are incompressible compared to gases. However, volume itself not specific is an extensive property.

This term is the reciprocal of specific volume. Since gas molecules can move freely within a container, their mass is normally characterized by density.

Density is the amount of mass per unit volume of a substance, or the inverse of specific volume. For gases, the density can vary over a wide range because the particles are free to move closer together when constrained by pressure or volume.

This variation of density is referred to as compressibility. Like pressure and temperature, density is a state variable of a gas and the change in density during any process is governed by the laws of thermodynamics.

For a static gas , the density is the same throughout the entire container. Density is therefore a scalar quantity.

It can be shown by kinetic theory that the density is inversely proportional to the size of the container in which a fixed mass of gas is confined.

In this case of a fixed mass, the density decreases as the volume increases. If one could observe a gas under a powerful microscope, one would see a collection of particles molecules, atoms, ions, electrons, etc.

These neutral gas particles only change direction when they collide with another particle or with the sides of the container. In an ideal gas, these collisions are perfectly elastic.

This particle or microscopic view of a gas is described by the kinetic-molecular theory. The assumptions behind this theory can be found in the postulates section of kinetic theory.

Kinetic theory provides insight into the macroscopic properties of gases by considering their molecular composition and motion.

Starting with the definitions of momentum and kinetic energy , [16] one can use the conservation of momentum and geometric relationships of a cube to relate macroscopic system properties of temperature and pressure to the microscopic property of kinetic energy per molecule.

The theory provides averaged values for these two properties. The theory also explains how the gas system responds to change.

For example, as a gas is heated from absolute zero, when it is in theory perfectly still, its internal energy temperature is increased.

As a gas is heated, the particles speed up and its temperature rises. This results in greater numbers of collisions with the container per unit time due to the higher particle speeds associated with elevated temperatures.

The pressure increases in proportion to the number of collisions per unit time. Brownian motion is the mathematical model used to describe the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid.

The gas particle animation, using pink and green particles, illustrates how this behavior results in the spreading out of gases entropy.

These events are also described by particle theory. Since it is at the limit of or beyond current technology to observe individual gas particles atoms or molecules , only theoretical calculations give suggestions about how they move, but their motion is different from Brownian motion because Brownian motion involves a smooth drag due to the frictional force of many gas molecules, punctuated by violent collisions of an individual or several gas molecule s with the particle.

The particle generally consisting of millions or billions of atoms thus moves in a jagged course, yet not so jagged as would be expected if an individual gas molecule were examined.

As discussed earlier, momentary attractions or repulsions between particles have an effect on gas dynamics.

In physical chemistry , the name given to these intermolecular forces is van der Waals force.

These forces play a key role in determining physical properties of a gas such as viscosity and flow rate see physical characteristics section.

Ignoring these forces in certain conditions allows a real gas to be treated like an ideal gas. This assumption allows the use of ideal gas laws which greatly simplifies calculations.

Proper use of these gas relationships requires the kinetic-molecular theory KMT. When gas particles experience intermolecular forces they gradually influence one another as the spacing between them is reduced the hydrogen bond model illustrates one example.

In the absence of any charge, at some point when the spacing between gas particles is greatly reduced they can no longer avoid collisions between themselves at normal gas temperatures.

Another case for increased collisions among gas particles would include a fixed volume of gas, which upon heating would contain very fast particles.

This means that these ideal equations provide reasonable results except for extremely high pressure compressible or high temperature ionized conditions.

All of these excepted conditions allow energy transfer to take place within the gas system. The absence of these internal transfers is what is referred to as ideal conditions in which the energy exchange occurs only at the boundaries of the system.

Real gases experience some of these collisions and intermolecular forces. When these collisions are statistically negligible incompressible , results from these ideal equations are still meaningful.

If the gas particles are compressed into close proximity they behave more like a liquid see fluid dynamics. An equation of state for gases is a mathematical model used to roughly describe or predict the state properties of a gas.

At present, there is no single equation of state that accurately predicts the properties of all gases under all conditions.

Therefore, a number of much more accurate equations of state have been developed for gases in specific temperature and pressure ranges.

The "gas models" that are most widely discussed are "perfect gas", "ideal gas" and "real gas". Each of these models has its own set of assumptions to facilitate the analysis of a given thermodynamic system.

The equation of state for an ideal or perfect gas is the ideal gas law and reads. Written this way, it is sometimes called the "chemist's version", since it emphasizes the number of molecules n.

It can also be written as. This notation is the "gas dynamicist's" version, which is more practical in modeling of gas flows involving acceleration without chemical reactions.

The ideal gas law does not make an assumption about the specific heat of a gas. In the most general case, the specific heat is a function of both temperature and pressure.

For an ideal gas, the ideal gas law applies without restrictions on the specific heat. An ideal gas is a simplified "real gas" with the assumption that the compressibility factor Z is set to 1 meaning that this pneumatic ratio remains constant.

A compressibility factor of one also requires the four state variables to follow the ideal gas law. This approximation is more suitable for applications in engineering although simpler models can be used to produce a "ball-park" range as to where the real solution should lie.

An example where the "ideal gas approximation" would be suitable would be inside a combustion chamber of a jet engine. Each one of the assumptions listed below adds to the complexity of the problem's solution.

As the density of a gas increases with rising pressure, the intermolecular forces play a more substantial role in gas behavior which results in the ideal gas law no longer providing "reasonable" results.

At the upper end of the engine temperature ranges e. At more than double that temperature, electronic excitation and dissociation of the gas particles begins to occur causing the pressure to adjust to a greater number of particles transition from gas to plasma.

Using a non-equilibrium situation implies the flow field must be characterized in some manner to enable a solution.

For most applications, such a detailed analysis is excessive. Examples where real gas effects would have a significant impact would be on the Space Shuttle re-entry where extremely high temperatures and pressures were present or the gases produced during geological events as in the image of the eruption of Mount Redoubt.

Boyle's law was perhaps the first expression of an equation of state. In Robert Boyle performed a series of experiments employing a J-shaped glass tube, which was sealed on one end.

Mercury was added to the tube, trapping a fixed quantity of air in the short, sealed end of the tube. Then the volume of gas was carefully measured as additional mercury was added to the tube.

The pressure of the gas could be determined by the difference between the mercury level in the short end of the tube and that in the long, open end.

The image of Boyle's equipment shows some of the exotic tools used by Boyle during his study of gases.

Through these experiments, Boyle noted that the pressure exerted by a gas held at a constant temperature varies inversely with the volume of the gas.

Given the inverse relationship between pressure and volume, the product of pressure P and volume V is a constant k for a given mass of confined gas as long as the temperature is constant.

Stated as a formula, thus is:. Because the before and after volumes and pressures of the fixed amount of gas, where the before and after temperatures are the same both equal the constant k , they can be related by the equation:.

In , the French physicist and balloon pioneer, Jacques Charles , found that oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and air expand to the same extent over the same 80 kelvin interval.

He noted that, for an ideal gas at constant pressure, the volume is directly proportional to its temperature:.

In , Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac published results of similar, though more extensive experiments. Gay-Lussac himself is credited with the law describing pressure, which he found in It states that the pressure exerted on a container's sides by an ideal gas is proportional to its temperature.

In , Amedeo Avogadro verified that equal volumes of pure gases contain the same number of particles. His theory was not generally accepted until when another Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro was able to explain non-ideal exceptions.

This specific number of gas particles, at standard temperature and pressure ideal gas law occupies Avogadro's law states that the volume occupied by an ideal gas is proportional to the number of moles or molecules present in the container.

This gives rise to the molar volume of a gas, which at STP is The relation is given by. In , John Dalton published the law of partial pressures from his work with ideal gas law relationship: The pressure of a mixture of non reactive gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone.

Mathematically, this can be represented for n species as:. The image of Dalton's journal depicts symbology he used as shorthand to record the path he followed.

Among his key journal observations upon mixing unreactive "elastic fluids" gases were the following: [22]. Thermodynamicists use this factor Z to alter the ideal gas equation to account for compressibility effects of real gases.

This factor represents the ratio of actual to ideal specific volumes. It is sometimes referred to as a "fudge-factor" or correction to expand the useful range of the ideal gas law for design purposes.

Usually this Z value is very close to unity. The compressibility factor image illustrates how Z varies over a range of very cold temperatures.

It is one of the most important dimensionless numbers in fluid dynamics and is used, usually along with other dimensionless numbers, to provide a criterion for determining dynamic similitude.

As such, the Reynolds number provides the link between modeling results design and the full-scale actual conditions.

It can also be used to characterize the flow.

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